CardioPulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life saving technique that is used in medical emergencies such as: choking, drug overdose, cardiac arrest, near drowning, electric shock, etc. In other words, CardioPulmonary Resuscitation is a kind of emergency course of action that is usually carried out to restore the circulation of blood round the body of the victim when the patient is breathing abnormally or not at all or the revival of heart and lung when they stop functioning temporary as a result of an accident or cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is always given as a first aid to the patient until further help/till expert medical attention becomes available to the victim.
When is CPR Necessary?
CPR techniques should be carried out in situations where the victim is having an abnormal breathing pattern, ie breathing in gasps or not breathing at all. It is also given to resuscitate a patient who is unconscious. Cardiac arrest which leads to impaired circulation of blood due to abnormality in contractions of the heart is a common situation to administer Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. In a situation of near drowning, electrocution and suffocation and other circumstances, CPR is very necessary to revive the victim.
Aims of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
It is very imperative that everyone cast away the various misconceptions regarding CPR and comprehend its main aim. The purpose of this technique is not to restart the heart, but to restore normal flow of blood to different parts of the body especially to the brain. When the circulation of blood terminates or gets severely limited, there are only a few minutes before the body becomes permanently damaged. The aim of CPR is therefore to delay any such damage to tissues and organs of the body by inducing circulation until a more advanced medical attention is given.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Procedures.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation includes the use of chest compressions and artificial ventilation to maintain circulatory flow and oxygenation during cardiac arrest. Although, survival rates and neurologic outcomes are poor for victim with cardiac arrest, early appropriate resuscitation, which includes: early defibrillation and appropriate implementation of post-cardiac arrest care result to improved survival and neurologic outcomes. A standard CPR procedure involves administering chest compression at a rate of 100 per minute and artificial respiration either through the mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or through a device. Thirty (30) compresses followed by two (2) breaths is the universally recommended ratio. These procedures may change slightly in the cases of adult, children, pregnant women and infants. At the scene of emergency where people at the spot may not be confident to administer such treatment, it is always advisable that the untrained individuals should give hand only or compression only CPR, while the standard CPR complete with artificial respiration should be administered by trained personnel so that the pulse can be gauged and necessary action taken.
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